How to Manage Medical Emergency?

Emergencies are conditions in which children are more affected, as per survey since the highest number of deaths occurs among children during famine, earthquake or any other natural calamity.

According to some researchers, the highest mortality rates during emergencies following armed conflicts, natural disasters, population displacements or famines often occur among children who are younger than five years. The most common causes of death are diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, measles, malaria and malnutrition. These kinds of diseases are also the major cause of death in countries with high child mortality rates, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).

According to a doctor, the major causes of child mortality in emergencies are well known. The doctors have now learned how to manage these emergency conditions in stable situations. However, conflict or disaster often increases the magnitude and intensity of these illnesses. This requires rapid assessment and treatment of large numbers of drastically ill children. This has been observed during tsunami and even earthquakes which happened recently.

The researchers found that in emergencies, most relief organizations use WHO, UNICEF and other ministry of health guidelines. How effective these interventions are in reducing child mortality in difficult emergencies is not understood by people. It is being noted that during emergency situations, care is given by multiple organizations. A wide range of workers relating to health having different levels of training and experience work during emergencies.

The health guidelines during emergencies can include the special needs of children who have lost their family and children having common mental health problems. The guidelines on how to deal with emergencies should be simplified so that community health workers and volunteers can follow them for taking primary care in emergency situations.

Many of the diseases that are common to children in non-emergency situation are the diseases that need to be treated in emergencies. Some of the treatment protocols already exist but they need to be adapted during emergency situations.

There is a division called “Child health in complex emergencies” which was funded by from the Department of Child and Adolescent Health, World Health Organization to the Center for Refugee and Disaster Response.

During some other basic emergency conditions like animal bites and scratches, some basic aid can be taken initially before going to the doctor. Though they might be minor accidents, they can become infected and can spread bacteria to other parts of the body. Whether the animal is a family pet or a wild creature, it can cause scratches and bites can also carry and transmit disease. For example, if a child gets a cat scratch disease, a bacterial infection, can be transmitted. This can happen even if the cat scratch doesn’t look infected. Apart from that, some animals can transmit rabies and tetanus which can pose severe threats to the health of the children. Human bites that break and rupture the skin are even more likely to become infected.